Parent-Management Training (PMT) - As is the case with PCIT, ABA, and BMT, PMT is an evidence-based/empircally supported model. Also, like ABA, PCIT, and BMT most of the "work" in PMT takes place outside of the treatment session. The course of treatment is typically 12-16 weeks. Treatment is conducted primarily with the parents/adult caregivers, who then directly implement several procedures at home. This is not a 'parenting class' per se and we don't provide PMT to groups of parents together (Group format is better left for children who are not experiencing clinically significant behavior/emotional problems). Sessions cover the following; intake/assessment, psycho-education and orientation to treatment, defining/observing and measuring the behaviors to make a specific plan to address them, reinforcement, withdrawing or time-out from reinforcement, attending and planned ignoring, behavior shaping and generalizing, problem solving, family meeting(s), low-rate and lower intensity behaviors, effective use of reprimands paired with reinforcing pro-social behavior, compromising and behavior contracting, and skill review/practice/termination. PMT is empirically supported for families where the 'target' child is between 5 and 14 years old.
Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) - Trauma‑focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF‑CBT) is an evidence‑based treatment approach shown to help children, adolescents, and their caregivers overcome trauma‑related difficulties. It is designed to reduce negative emotional and behavioral responses following child abuse, domestic violence, traumatic loss, and other traumatic events. The treatment addresses distorted beliefs and attributions related to the abuse and provides a supportive environment in which children are encouraged to talk about their traumatic experience. TF‑CBT also helps caregivers/parents who were not abusive to cope effectively with their own emotional distress and develop skills that support their children. TF-CBT typically involves between 12-18 sessions. The treatment involves individual sessions with the child and caregiver/parent separately and joint sessions with them together. TF-CBT is appropriate for children exposed to trauma between the ages of 3-18 and if the caregiver/parent co-participating in the treatment with the child is NOT the parent/caregiver who participated in the abuse.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Can be individual or family-centered. CBT is a form of treatment that focuses on examining the relationships between thoughts, feelings and behaviors. The methods used in CBT demand a great deal of commitment and self-initiative from the client. For the therapy to be successful, people have to cooperate actively and to also work on their problems between sessions. The course fo treatment varies based on a number of factors including the kind and severity of the problems, among other things. Typical research protocols entail 16-20 sessions. In a clinical setting, 4-6 months of treatment is average, with periodic booster sessions to maintain gains and reduce risk of setbacks. In children, CBT can be effective part of the comprehensive treatment plans (including psychiatric care) for anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders,obsessive–compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as tic disorders, such as trichotillomania, and other repetitive behavior disorders. Children as young as 3 years old WITH active parental involvement in treatment can benefit from CBT. For individual therapy, CBT can be effective for children as young as 8 years old and through adulthood.
Family Therapy - This is a broad term. All forms of family therapy essentially focus on the interaction between family members, rather than an individual. We use a number of different models, based on an individualized assessment of the family system. There are times another form of therapy is recommended prior to family therapy, depending on the family's history, presenting problems and ability to collectively function. The theoretical influences and models we use are structural family therapy, strategic family therapy, solution-focused brief therapy and functional family therapy.
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